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High risk

  • Endotracheal intubation and extubation

  • Bronchoscopy and bronchoalveolar lavage

  • Tracheostomy

  • Laryngoscopy

  • Non-invasive positive pressure ventilation (BiPAP and CPAP)

  • Autopsy of lung tissue

  • Nasopharyngeal washing and scoping

  • Upper GI scopes

  • Sputum induction



  • Open airway suctioning

  • Breaking a closed ventilation system: intentionally (e.g., open suctioning), unintentionally (e.g., patient movement).  Staff caring for sedated ventilated patients do not need to wear an N95 as the likelihood of an unintentional break in the circuit is unlikely.

  • Optiflow (should only be used in COVID-19 patients following consultation with an intensivist).  Oxygen delivered via nasal prongs and/or non-rebreather masks are not considered AGMP, regardless of flow rate

  • Cardiopulmonary resuscitation

  • Tracheostomy care if requiring deep suctioning

  • Some dental procedures (e.g., high speed drilling)

  • Administration of aerosolizing or nebulizing medications

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